It is clear that these attitudes in relation to the most important institutions of the political system does not characterize the deep layers of the political culture, but only its concrete manifestations. But even in these “samples” of the political soil attract attention not absolute figures, and their relationship. The number of respondents with a positive attitude to the government and the president, more than the number of those who have positive attitude to a parliamentary form of government. This can be considered a deeper trend that characterizes the lack of development of parliamentarism and the orientation of the citizens of the central figures of the state, as if they were not called: the president, the government or the Central Committee of the CPSU.
Finally, one can not say about the setup man for himself, as part of the political system. In some cultures, people may perceive themselves as the main value. In the other – on the contrary, to see themselves cog from whom – he voted or not – it still does not depend.
In addition to the plants, as elements of political consciousness, political culture and has a characteristic set of political action. We have already talked about the different traditions for resolving political conflicts. Another feature of the national political culture is the reaction of the general public and some political forces in the worsening of the crisis. Thus, observers note that in Argentina a good barometer of the coming political storm is the habit of employees on the eve of the start of mass action throw from the windows of business papers and even typewriters. In the old days in the Russian political life harbinger of all kinds of political instability served as the disappearance of the sale of matches, salt and other essentials that citizens stocked, bitter experience of the past. In the political life of Russia last such episode was observed in 1991-1992., When the catastrophic expectations of people were forced to buy salt, sugar, canned food and small stoves.
At the intersection of the characteristics of the subject and the object emerges personal profile political orientation of the respondent’s rights. In any case, such a method the researchers used a well-known political culture G. Almond and Verba. The massive study of the psychological profiles should, in their view, give the type of national political culture. On the eve of the presidential elections 1995 in France, the French national politicians Foundation of Political Sciences conducted a survey of more than 4,000 people and compared these data with the results of a similar study in 1996, on the eve of the U.S. presidential election. Such large-scale projects allow you to monitor the development of the underlying trends identified in the studies 60s G. Almond and Verba th.
Already on the basis of the first studies were made hypotheses about the major types of political cultures. American political scientists proposed classification of the three main types of mixed and multiple political cultures is now recognized as a classic. The first basic type – patriarchal. System with this type of culture autocratically controlled by chiefs and is characterized by the complete absence of any interest of citizens in the political system, as it requires them to blind obedience. This type of culture is common in the backward tribes, but its manifestations continue to influence and quite modern society. Modern Chinese political culture, for example, contains many elements of the patriarchal type.
The second type – subservient. He has a strong positive attitude of citizens to the political system and a low degree of personal involvement. It was formed in a feudal society with a strong hierarchy of the relations between the different “levels” of the political system. Lower-level subjects, according to tradition, should be treated with reverence to his lord. “Pochitatelnaya” model of relations and is still clearly visible in many political cultures. It manifests itself in the fact that the leaders expect their followers not to commitment and personal loyalty to the leader, which is the main virtue of those who seek a career in politics. It should be noted that in poddannicheskoy culture of respect for the leader can be combined with high civic consciousness and personal political participation.
The third type is clean – the activist. It is characterized by the desire of citizens to play a significant role in the political affairs of their competence in the affairs of the state, which implies a high level of interest and the actual activity, a positive attitude to politics.
In reality, “pure” types do not meet. They provide various combinations of mixed types: the patriarchal subservient, subservient, activist, etc. One of these mixed types, called “civic culture” and representing a mixture poddannicheskih and activist elements, according to Almond and Verba, typical of English and American cultures.
To study the types of political culture was important concepts allocation subculture. It was found that some national culture were molded internally and others, called fragment consisted of a very heterogeneous parts. These “inclusions” and were named subcultures. Political science is accepted, speaking of the national political culture, to understand by this term is not the political culture of a particular ethnic group, and public education. In small and mono-ethnic countries such as Armenia, the two may coincide. In the same multinational states (for example, in India, the U.S., Russia and others), each national culture has a number of ethnic subcultures. Thus, in modern Russian political subculture Caucasian people are very different from Tatar, Yakut and Russian Central subcultures. Policies are not always aware that their decisions on economic aid to the Chechen war destroyed areas can outweigh the anti-Russian sentiment revived under the influence of the traditions of mountain people have developed in the course of the Hundred Years War with Russia.
In addition to the ethnic basis for allocation of subcultures, and is used on a regional basis. In modern political life are becoming increasingly important regional features, including cultural ones. In Russia 90s. apparent deepening contradiction between the political culture 1) cities, 2) medium and small cities, and 3) rural areas. These three sub-cultures differ not only in how they are functioning political institutions, but also on the subjective characteristics of the political culture on setting citizens to power, order, political institutions and leaders. If we consider what role in the lives of Russians play a factor, “homeland”, and it becomes clear what role it plays in their regional identity in the formation of “regional identity” of the population of these or other subjects of the Russian Federation.
The third type of sub-cultures, which drew the attention of researchers, was named subcultures protest or “hostile” subcultures (the term D. Bell). Protest movement that emerged in the 80s, caught the attention of the fact that they focused new political values do not coincide with the official. An example of such a movement was the movement of fighters for a cleaner environment. Supporters of only one organization Greenpeace collected millions in support of their actions. Recent protests against French nuclear testing caused an unprecedented explosion of mass activity all around the world. In the United States for many was a surprise “march million black men” in October 1995 Potential protest that carefully studied political science, is subject not only to situational factors, but also there is a fairly stable environment in which ripen new political culture. Russia’s “hostile” subculture of the 90 are still poorly understood. Among them are the radical left and right movements and nationalist, fascist groups, and environmental, human rights and other political organizations, which are characterized by destructive forms of protest.